The CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection said earlier in a statement that Lu was found to have used money, personal connections and lobbying to "buy official positions and honorary titles along the way", which enabled him to rise "from a private enterprise owner to a vice-ministerial-level official". Also, he had been simultaneously acting as an official and a businessman.
Mackerras found the whole experience in China challenging in the early days. "But I got to love the place and that love has never left me."
He also sought benefits for four enterprises under his control by bribing and asking his employees to bribe government workers between 1996 and 2016. The bribes amounted to more than 7.9 million yuan, according to the prosecutor.
The standard applies to all-levels of English learners from elementary school to university and focuses on students' ability in everyday practical language, broader communication skills and understanding of the culture in English-speaking places.
"When I first went to China, Australia was referred to as the 'running dog of US imperialism' and we had very little to do with China. Today, China is too big, too powerful to ignore."