The Chinese mainland is ahead of India and Indonesia in technology and innovation. However, Brazil and Turkey, which according to the report showed great potential in the early 2000s, have lost ground.
Three Indian locations appear in the top 100 of the cluster study: Bengaluru at 43rd (with patent activity focused on computer technology), Mumbai at 95th and Pune at 96th (both registering among the most patents in organic fine chemistry), the report says.
"Adding the constitutional provision on upholding and strengthening overall Party leadership from the perspective of the very nature of China's socialist system is conducive to boosting the awareness of the Party's leadership among all the Chinese people, effectively integrating the Party's leadership with the entire process and all aspects of the country's work, and ensuring the Party and the country's undertakings to always forge ahead in the correct direction," it read.
Several Chinese archaeologists have long suspected that early humans settled in China between 80,000 to 120,000 years ago.
The Chinese archaeologists made one of their biggest breakthroughs during a 2011 excavation of Fuyan Cave in Hunan province, where they found 47 teeth belonging to modern humans. The teeth were buried underneath stalagmites that were found to be least 80,000 years old, suggesting the fossils were older.
"This is a great example of a company attuned to its Far Eastern customers," said White. The Tattoo includes performances by Scottish pipe and drum military bands, dance troupes and firework displays held on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle every evening through the month of August and twice on Saturdays.
The Global Competitiveness Report ranking is based on the Global Competitiveness Index, which was introduced by the WEF in 2005. Defining competitiveness as the set of institutions, policies and factors that determine the level of productivity of a country, GCI scores are calculated by drawing together country-level data covering 12 categories - the pillars of competitiveness - that collectively make up a comprehensive picture of a country's competitiveness. The 12 pillars are: institutions, infrastructure, macroeconomic environment, health and primary education, higher education and training, goods market efficiency, labor market efficiency, financial market development, technological readiness, market size, business sophistication and innovation.